INTRODUCTION
Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an spot of 27,925 square miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land supposed as a property for African settlers who have been waifs in London and later on it was employed as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and turned a Republic in 1971. Training is offered by both private and point out-sponsored schools. The current technique of schooling is six-3-four-4 (that is 6 years Major school, three a long time Junior Secondary School, four several years Senior Secondary College and four several years tertiary/higher schooling. This method is complemented by non- official training.
Concept OF Schooling
Training is usually utilised in the perception of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science room and consists principally in the imparting by the trainer, and the acquisition by pupils, of info and mental as effectively as handbook capabilities. A broader indicating than instruction is that of schooling. That is to say all that goes on inside the university as portion of the pupil’s life there. It contains, amongst other items, partnership between pupils and lecturers, pupils and pupils the two in and outside the house the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that what ever aids to condition the human getting to make the personal what he is or hinder him from being what he is not is element of his training. Implicitly education is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum overall of all influences which go to make a particular person what he is, from delivery to death. It involves the property, our neighbors, and the road among other folks.
Training is to some extent a deliberate planned method devised and performed by the educator with the purpose of imbuing the learner with specific data, capabilities, of brain and physique as effectively as modes of conduct considered fascinating. In component it is the learner’s own reaction to the environment in which he lives. Schooling has a few focal points: the person/particular person on whom the educator’s influences are introduced to bear the society or local community to which he belongs and the total context of truth in which the individual and society play their element. Male is a social creature he grows as a person by way of the affect of individuality on character and even for his standard physical requirements he relies upon on the help and cooperation of his fellow gentlemen and ladies. Without society and the mutual assist and enrichment of ordeals which it provides civilization is extremely hard and the lifestyle of gentleman, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, very poor, terrible, brutish and quick.”
1 of the elementary information of human existence is the stress between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the foreseeable future, between security and adjust, custom and innovation. For efficient dwelling,man requirements a circle of security, an area of established habits and partnership which varieties trusted relationships. This is also accurate of culture. For its efficient operating there have to be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a culture and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Adjust must be for daily life and not static but this alter in turn need to be controlled by the fundamental traditions of modern society. It is custom which offers a country its character and distinctiveness as a modern society. The conservation of custom consequently is naturally essential.
It has been identified from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional education and learning has a vital part to play in the improvement of the child. The youngsters of these days are the adults of tomorrow they need to be trained for that reason, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the certain modern society to which they belong. For every modern society has the wish to protect itself not only bodily but as group consciously sharing specific aims, ideals and designs of behavior. This kind of education and learning is not always formal in faculties by means of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by means of the family members and by way of the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the child can not evade. In Sierra Leone this social education incorporated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance in which younger males and ladies should show on their own deserving of the group. The final purpose was to make an person who was honest, respectful, competent, cooperative, and who could conform to the social buy of the working day. As Aristotle once mentioned “the structure of a state will undergo if schooling is neglected. The citizens of a condition should constantly be educated to go well with the structure of the condition. The type of character acceptable to a structure is the power which continues to maintain it as it is also the condition force which at first produced it” (p. I).
Standard Education IN Modern society
Conventional education and learning has both a creative and conservation function in society it is a strong implies of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. In the past the nature and requirements of modern society played a important portion in figuring out the character of education. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) when wrote in his guide, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the instructional technique will are likely to mirror the social sample, while social uneasiness and instability generate prospect for utilizing education and learning as an instrument of social modify”(p.seven). A related check out was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by means of schooling society can formulate its possess needs, can arrange its personal means and methods and thus conserve alone with definiteness and financial system in the course in which it wishes to shift. Schooling seems to be the two to the earlier and the future inevitably it reflects the traditions and character of society. Traditional schooling can be utilised to get ready for changes in society and foresee and prevent modifications or the effects of changes in modern society.
Traditional training conserves and arms on the customs and techniques of life which represent the character of a culture and maintains its unity. It also assists modern society to interpret its capabilities in new methods to meet up with the issues of alter, searching for methods or traces of advancement which are constant with the traditions and customs and will at the very same time elevate culture to a far more total fulfillment of itself.
Conventional Educational Institutions IN SIERRA LEONE
Background reveals that there had been no formal faculties where youngsters ended up educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Key Societies ended up appeared upon as institutions to practice youngsters. They have been bush schools. And the training these bush colleges presented was informal. Children who went through these secret societies have been considered capable of carrying out their civic duties. They became adults and can marry and start off existence. They regarded themselves as a single family. In other phrases both Key Societies created a feeling of comradeship and unity amid users irrespective of household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was therefore deemed that children who had not gone by way of these key societies have been not totally matured.
The Poro Magic formula Modern society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen only by the older graduates or users. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the activities of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who typically instruct and give guidelines to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas provide as instructors to the initiates whilst the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the girls and children alike jointly with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages all around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects even though the Sayboms are the prefects and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held in the Key Poro Bush. The subjects taught include Inventive Practical Arts, Carrying out Arts, Useful Agriculture, Drugs i.e. use of neighborhood herbs for the remedy of diverse ailments), warfare and other abilities. In Imaginative Functional Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wood and cleaning soap stones into diverse objects this kind of as animals and people in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical devices. In Practical Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out grievance and increase accustomed to it. Therefore they are taken to the farms of their teachers and elders to perform on professional bono foundation. Nevertheless throughout the harvest period initiates could go via these farms getting no matter what they need to have and consume with out getting questioned by farm owners. Initiates are taught to regard elders and use of guns to eliminate animals. In a equivalent vein initiates are taught how to use guns in preventing in protection of their communities. Other skills initiates are taught include creating fish traps, fishing and hunting net, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates shell out funds (some freely presented) for therapeutic different sicknesses as effectively as for safety in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to cause harm to others using herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine involved. In excess of all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by members referred to as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika which means I am talking to you fonka bonomi meaning Talk to me. The use of this new Language tends to make graduates very proud and really feel different from non-initiates. Graduates appear out with new names these kinds of as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the event.
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Dad and mom make enormous preparations which includes stitching dresses for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, consuming, dancing and singing praise songs for the graduates and their mothers and fathers. These certified for initiation have to have been circumcised and developed to age of puberty. They have to stay on their own in the course of the period of training which ranges from one particular to seven many years. Graduates are completely admitted to the basic Poro culture via one more ceremony called Enkorie, which lasts for four times.
The Bondo/Sande Society is the establishment exactly where ladies are trained for womanhood. Its non secular head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the actual physical heads. These have non secular powers utilized to foretell the potential and catch witches. They are the senior lecturers. The Na Sokos are the services instructors. They can initiate ladies even up to the sophisticated phase of the Modern society. The Digbas are the standard academics and keep near to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand girls/ladies. They make announcements about the progress and actions or programs in the course of the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the title implies do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They have the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the greater position of the establishment. Ladies admitted to the Bondo/Sande Culture are skilled informally. Courses are held at Kantha or sacred home. The lecturers are mostly concerned with the transmission to these adolescent ladies the abilities and information which grownup girls are anticipated to have in order to perform effectively and intelligently in their community. The topics girls are taught consist of Cooking, Doing Arts, Fishing, Spouse and Little one Care, and Property Management. In Cooking girls are taught how to put together meals through observation and participation in the preparing of different dishes and are later on authorized to have a go with small or no supervision. Individuals who could not cook dinner appropriately are allowed to repeat. In Carrying out Arts ladies are taught how to compose and sing tracks and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing ladies are taught how to dance and these who dance properly may sign up for the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Further ladies are taught how to help their potential husbands and how to just take care of children particularly these of senior associates. Like the Poro Culture graduation ceremonies are marked by massive preparations. Both parents and possible husbands would acquire new dresses, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names these kinds of as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a sign of maturity. Initiating ladies into Bondo/Sande modern society lasts among a handful of months and 3 a long time.
Challenges
If training has the crucial function of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a changing atmosphere, and of elevating them to richer and far more fruitful expression then equally the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as traditional brokers of this method should appreciate a position of the maximum esteem. By way of these mystery societies the nation’s society flows from one technology to the other and the aspirations of modern society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at a stage where the energies of children are introduced into new and creative prospects. By way of these magic formula societies youngsters bear in mind the past activities of their predecessors. They support in behavioral instruction styles of modern society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and both politicians and chiefs use them to edge. That is to both achieve or sustain electrical power. Major and binding choices are taken in the Poro Bush of which only customers are permitted to go to and take component. The Poro Mystery Modern society functions as a verify in opposition to the abuse of energy. In crisis ridden circumstances significant determination are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro culture even functions as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate general regulations and regulate investing practices. It is also involved in the burial of chiefs and other essential local officers (Alie, 1990).
Western education has existed in the country for extended and is now so integral part of the civilized daily life that there is a tendency to assume that it is the main or sole signifies of imparting capabilities, expertise and social values in children. This is not the scenario in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the Poro and Bondo classic secret societies are not able to be in excess of-sighted since of their huge potentiality in educating youngsters for lifestyle in modern society. Fundamental is that respect for people as folks is the basis of conventional culture. Joined with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the requirements of others, cooperativeness, self-self-discipline, ethical and actual physical courage, challenging work and high expectations of achievement. These are handed on to children in the atmosphere in which they are element of their day-to-day encounters. Notwithstanding, these conventional establishments as agents of education and learning are currently faced with a lot of challenges there-by forcing their demise. The practice of woman genital circumcision is of international issue and in Sierra Leone folks are agitating for its total ban. Presently women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen during which time a youngster is perceived to be matured enough to pick whether or not or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande magic formula modern society. In addition the period of initiation is perceived as well lengthy and is getting challenged. Apart from children these days no for a longer time have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be cleanse, cook dinner, rear children, practice agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a few examples. All these could be learnt either in or outdoors official education through reading through. What is far more Religion, specifically Christianity and Islam, western existence, as nicely as rural-city migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.
Besides the pursuits and perform of these classic societies are not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. Consequently by discontinuing these conventional magic formula societies Sierra Leoneans stand to drop their cultural heritage. If nevertheless, education and learning has the important purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of modern society, of adapting them to a shifting environment, and of elevating them to a richer and much more fruitful expression then these standard key societies, as agents of this method should enjoy a situation of the optimum esteem. By way of these societies the countrywide culture flows from a single generation to yet another and the aspirations of culture are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion on the younger. These mystery societies stand at the stage in which the energies of children are introduced into new and innovative choices.